Electronics EE351 Revised Nov. 12, 2015 Professor Kenneth A. Kuhn 
General Class Information General
Student
Information
This is the main
student page and has a
variety of information you should know.
EE351 Course Syllabus This is the course syllabus and rough lab schedule. Test
Scores This is a histogram list of
scores in descending
numerical order. Absolutely no names, codes, or any identifiers
will ever be used that could link a score to a particular
student.
EE351 Equation Sheet for Tests
This is a copy of the equations I provide for each test. Use this to
study by.
Test Policies (On main student page) It is very important that you know and adhere to these! Also there is a Calculator/Device Usage Policy EE351 Lab
Information The labs will be graded by
the lab instructor. You need to hand the lab in by the start of the
next lab or by the end of the course for the last
lab.
EE351_handout_links This is a list of files below that are printed and handed out by the UAB student IEEE. 
Latest
Class News Tentative
Lab Schedule Fall 2015
Labs: 1 Sept 11  Diodes 2 Sept 18  Intro to BJT 3 Oct. 2  BJT circuits 4 Oct. 23  FET circuits 5 Nov. 6  Multistage amplifiers 6 Nov. 13 Frequency Response 7. Monte Carlo  done at home  due last night of class Tentative Class and test schedule (Fall 2015) Aug. 27 Introduction, amplifier analysis Sept. 3 Semiconductor physics and diodes Sept 10 Diode applications and power supplies Sept 17 BJT Analysis Sept. 24 BJT Analysis and design Oct. 1 More BJT Analysis and design Oct. 8 Problem session  amplifiers, diodes, and BJTs Oct. 15 Test 1 and JFET analysis Oct. 22 JFET design and problems Oct. 29 Multistage Amplifiers Nov. 5 Multstage Amplifiers Nov. 12 Frequency response Nov. 19 Test 2 (JFET and Multistage) Monte Carlo analysis Dec. 3 Frequency response and conclusion Dec. (10, 7:00 to 9:30?) Final Exam  comprehensive Topics for Test 1: Be able to work dB problems from any perspective  like the homework Be able to work black box amplifier circuits  one and two stages Transistor bias analysis Transistor AC analysis  commonemitter, commoncollector Transistor Bias design  commonemitter, commoncollector Transistor AC design  commonemitter  i.e. calculate RE1 for specified gain EE351 Test 1 Practice Problems These are excellent problems to be able to work in preparation for the test. Here are some BJT practice problems: bjt_practice_problems.pdf Topics for Test 2: Be able to do bias and AC analysis for JFET commonsource and commondrain amplifiers. Note: there is a spreadsheet in the JFET section that should be of help. Be sure to work all H.W. problems. Be able to do bias design for JFET amplifiers  be able to calculate either RS or VGG depending on given information. Be able to do multistage bias and AC analysis  it is critical to work the homework problems and practice those until you are efficient in time. Be able to handle both NPN and PNP. Topics for Final All topics for test 1 All topics for test 2 Filter capacitor design for power supplies Frequency response analysis 
The following files are the lecture notes for the course at the University of Alabama, Birmingham. These notes supplement the text book and are not intended to be a substitute. Anyone who finds this site is welcome to use the files. Please report any persistent dead links as I may have missed one as I make updates to the site. You should definitely print out the instructor's articles as those are very applicable to tests. You may want to print some of the manufacture's information but it is not necessary to print all of it as that would be a huge number of pages and you would be lost in the wealth of information. Definitely read all of them. Note that the data and application notes include material that is beyond the scope of the class  do not worry about sections that are not applicable. Be sure to check out the following interview on National Public Radio with Jim Williams who is an analog electronics engineer and works for Linear Technologies Corporation in Milpitas, CA  the southeastern end of what is known as Silicon Valley. The audio is about 5 minutes and there are five interesting pictures of Jim's office and home. Jim is one of the best known analog designers in the world and the interview is very interesting. Jim has written many articles concerning electronics engineering. NPR : One Man's Junk Is Another's Marvel The following companies have excellent web sites with a lot of information. Their application notes are the basis for many textbooks you could pay a lot of money for. You can download these for free. You need to check these sites anytime you need to know anything. http://www.national.com National Semiconductor Be sure to check the many features of the Analog University. There is a lot of very useful information – probably the best anywhere on the Internet. Studying many of the old application notes here (some are part of the course material below) is how your instructor learned what he knows. http://www.analog.com Analog Devices http://www.linear.com Linear Technology Corporationhttp://www.omega.com Omega Engineering This company supplies many different types of transducers and also has some excellent application notes. Their web site contains a lot of data and general information. The following sections of the course are grouped by color which is intended to make it easier to locate material. 
Title Page for Notes This is a title page that goes with the entire note set. Introduction Notes These are a few comments that introduce the course. Note to self: Add notes about Ohm's law, voltage dividers, etc. 
Introduction to Decibels This note describes how to do calculations with decibels. There are homework problems with answers. Introduction to Amplifiers This is an introduction to general amplifier concepts. There are homework problems with answers. amplifier_calculations.xls A spreadsheet to assist with doing "black box" amplifier calculations Distortion of Signals This note discusses the two primary types of distortion that occur in systems and how to measure distortion. Homework in text book: Chapter 6 Amplifiers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Chapter 9 Frequency Response (dB calculations section only): 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 

Introduction to Transistors This note has some brief introductory comments. Bipolar Junction Transistor Basics This note introduces the fundamental math for BJTs. The study of bipolar junction transistors is divided into four groups as follows:
BJT AC Analysis This note derives the AC characteristics of BJT amplifiers. BJT Bias Design This note derives the procedure for temperature stable and beta stable design and also for calculating the bias resistors. This note does not say where the bias points are  those are determined in notes below. This note only describes how to achieve a given bias condition. Distortion in BJT Amplifiers This is a general note about how distortion occurs in BJT amplifiers. CommonEmitter Amplifier Design: Choosing RC for CommonEmitter and CommonBase Amplifiers (supplemental) Optimum VBQ and VCQ bias Conditions for Maximum Linear Output for the CommonEmitter Amplifier This is a long and very mathematical detailed derivation of the optimum bias conditions for linearity. It is a good example of the type of mathematics required to do real engineering. Initially, the math explodes in complexity but with the right approach reduces to something very practical. Designing the AC Gain of a CommonEmitter Amplifier This note deals with how to calculate RE1 for a specified Av, Avl, or Avn. CommonCollector Amplifier Design: CommonCollector Amplifier Design This is a very detailed design note that addresses the different situations for use as an input stage and an output stage. For a lowlevel input stage the input resistance should be as high as practical. For a high level output stage the linear output signal swing should be as high as practical. General Notes: Power Gain of Single Stage BJT Amplifiers This note discusses the ultimate power gain possible for each of the three types of BJT amplifiers, commonemitter, commoncollector, and commonbase. BJT General Design This note discusses some general considerations in BJT design and provides a guide for determining which amplifier type (CE, CB, or CC) is best for a given situation. (supplemental) Real World Practicalities in Designing Transistor Amplifiers This is a short note that deals with approaches and decisions you would have to make in the real world. Homework problems: Transistor Bias Design and Analysis and Amplifier Analysis BJT Amplifier Design BJT Transistor Bias Design for Stability Homework in text book: Chapter 4: BJTs: 1, 10, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 23, 31, 33, 34, 49—SPICE. Chapter 7: Transistor Amplifiers: 1, 3, 6, 8, 9, (14, 16 interesting!) 17, 50—SPICE. Excel Spreadsheets: BJT Analysis Spreadsheet This spreadsheet performs bias analysis and amplifier gain analysis for the standard BJT circuit. Solutions are provided for commonemitter, commonbase, and commoncollector as the spreadsheet makes no assumptions as to what type the amplifier actually is. The user simply selects the appropriate solution set. Laboratory Exercises: Lab
2: Transistor
Circuits This laboratory exercise
introduces the
student to the simplest transistor circuits, distortion, and
temperature stability. 
JFET Basics This note introduces JFET terminology and shows the derivation of the equations used for mathematical modeling. A number of plots are shown to illustrate JFET characteristics. (supplemental) JFET Hand Notes These are some old hand notes about JFETs. Measuring IDSS and VP of a JFET This is a hand note about measuring IDSS and VP of a JFET. JFET Bias Analysis This note derives the general bias analysis method. JFET AC Analysis This note derives the small signal AC model and the method for determining rin, ro, and Av of JEFT amplifiers. JFET Bias Design This note derives the method for bias design. JFET AC Design This note discusses issues in AC design for JFET amplifiers. (supplemental) Distortion in JFET Amplifiers This is an extensive note that explores linearity and distortion in JFET amplifiers and the bias and signal levels for minimum distortion. Selected Data for JFETs This is a short list of data such as IDSS and VP for several common JFETs. (supplemental) Power Gain of Single Stage JFET Amplifiers This note explores the ultimate power gain possible for each of the three types of JFET amplifiers, commonsource, commondrain, and commongate. FET Analysis Spreadsheet This spreadsheet implements the analysis method discussed in the notes for doing bias and AC analysis for commonsource, commondrain, and commongate amplifiers. http://www2.eng.cam.ac.uk/~dmh/ptialcd/ This is an excellent web site and has some graphical demonstrations of how field effect transistors work. http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datasheet/vishay/70595.pdf This is an excellent application note concerning biasing of jfet amplifiers. JFET Homework Problems These are some excellent homework problems with answers. Homework in text book: Chapter 5: FETs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, 24. Lab 4: Field Effect Transistors This lab shows how to measure JFET characteristics and involves design of commonsource and commondrain amplifiers. 
Multistage Amplifiers This is an introduction to multistage amplifiers. Multistage Analysis Example This is an example multistage analysis worked out in detail. There is no homework in the text book on this subject. The student should carefully analyse and understand the amplifiers in the above example, the lab, and examples worked in class. Multistage Amplifier Homework Problems Here are five basic problems with inverses for a total of ten. This give excellent practice working with PNP and NPN stages. Lab 5: Multistage Amplifiers This lab illustrates analysis of two multistage amplifiers and also explores differential and commonmode gain in differential amplifiers. Supplemental Material (supplemental) Design of Audio Power Amplifiers This note discusses the design of a simple multistage audio power amplifier. 
Amplifier Frequency Response This note describes the low and high frequency response of an amplifier and how to make calculations. Square Wave Testing This note describes how to use square waves to approximately measure the high and low frequency response of an amplifier. Frequency Response Homework  includes answers. ce_amplifier.xls This spreadsheet performs frequency response analysis on a single stage commonemitter amplifier using methods discussed in class. Note that some of the results are estimates and are frequently good but can fail in some cases. SPICE is the only way to always obtain accurate results. Homework in text book: Chapter 9 Frequency Response: 1, 2, 3, 16, 17, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24,25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 33, 34. Lab 6: Frequency Response The student measures the high and low frequency response of a single stage amplifier and compares the results with SPICE and hand calculations. 
Homework in text book: Chapter 17 Transistor Circuits: TBD Monte Carlo Experiment This lab illustrates the use of the Monte Carlo method to easily do a complex analysis of a transistor design. Sample Spreadsheet for Monte Carlo Experiment This is a sample Excel spreadsheet the student can adapt for performing the above lab. 
Sample SPICE files from previous classes . Use these as examples as they have worked well in the past. None of the circuits apply to current material. ee351a.cir is a sample file to illustrate use of SPICE with a transistor and frequency response. lab6a.cir This is a file containing the first circuit in an older Lab 6. lab6.cir
This is a version of the circuit to be designed in an older Lab
6. Note that its gain is around 326 instead of the intended
500. 
Answers to multistage homework . Depending on how you round off various calculations, your answers may differ a little from these  do not worry about this  I allow for rounding differences on the test. I also put various intermediate results here too. From these results, you can calculate all other voltages you need to check your work
1. Rin = 10.2K, Ro = 2K, A = 1372, IE1 = 191 uA, IE2 = 2.06 mA
2. Rin = 2048, Ro = 58.5, A = 210, IE1 = 980 uA, IE2 = 7.97 mA
3. I made a mistake  the 1K resistor should be 560 Ohms.
Rin = 11.65K, Ro = 560, A = 263, IE1 = 4.04 mA, IE2 = 12.74 mA
4. Rin = 147K, Ro = 93, A = 111, IE1 = 244 uA, IE2 = 324 uA, IE3 = 7.38 mA