University of
Alabama at BirminghamAnalog Integrated Electronics EE431 / EE531 Revised Jan. 22, 2016 Professor Kenneth A. Kuhn |

General
Student
Information
This
is the main student page
and has a variety of information you should know.EE431/EE531 Course
Syllabus This is the course syllabus
and rough lab
schedule.EE431 Files
List (Word document) These are
the files that are printed and distributed to the students.
These files contain the main course information and the
labs. The many supplemental files as listed below are not
included.Test
Scores This is a histogram list of
scores in descending
numerical order. Absolutely no names, codes, or any identifiers
will ever be used that could link a score to a particular
student.EE431 Equation Sheet This is a copy of the first
page(s) of any test and have the
equations and other information I provide. Use this to
study by.Test Policies (On
main student page) It is very
important that you know and adhere to these!EE431 Lab Report
Format Use this guide
for writing lab
reports. This is brand new and will be evolving as students
have questions (feel free to email questions, concerns, etc. and
I will address them) and as I see
issues.Obsolete format (but you
might want to read it anyway for some thoughts) but I will
keep it here until all information has been ported to the
above.
EE431 Lab
Report
Format This is the format for writing lab
reports. You do not need a cover sheet
anymore. |

EE431 Lab reports:
ABET files require that all labs reports be individually done -- so no group lab
reports. I hate this as much as
you do but that is the way it is . It is preferred that you do your labs individually. However, you may work in
groups (no more than 3) as group efforts can be benificial to all and
save time. I would appreciate it very much if in your individual
lab reports you indicate on the cover or first page the group members.
These labs should be handed in Students may use the lab anytime there is not a scheduled lab in process. Be sure to show all measured data and show equations used to calculate results. Don't say, "We connected the circuit and the measurements went as expected." or "We connected the cicuit and determined that the result was 37." Think about how you could defend what you wrote if questions came up later about what you did. That is important on a job. It is difficult for someone to challenge a well documented experiement. An undocumented experiment is open to easy attack. Lab 4 is one of special ABET interest and there are several important things students need to show on the lab reports: * Document in detail the experimental setup including model numbers and serial number of the equipment used. This makes the experiment traceable if someone desired to repeat the test -- important in many job situations. * Show a complete connection diagram of the test equipment setup (A Visio drawing would be good). * Write the report so that someone else could repeat the experiment. Repeatability is very important. You should do this anyway for any write-up * All Lab 4s must be turned in for ABET. Review
for Test 1:* Op-amp offset, bias
current, offset
current, 1 sigma error band, bias current compensation* Op-amp non-inverting and inverting amplifiers * Gain bandwidth product and frequency response * Instrumentation amplifiers * Op-amp circuits, inverting summer, differential amplifier, etc. * Single power supply circuits * General analysis of an op-amp circuit you have not seen before * Design of an op-amp circuit -- similar to the homework Note: Test 2 for Spring, 2015 will be shifted 1 week to March 19 because of the weather delay. Lab 4 is due March 19. Review
for Test 2:* Noise analysis * Thermocouples, RTDs, diode temperature sensor processing circuits * Thermocouple problem(s) similar to H.W. * Temperature coefficient of resistance * RTD problem -- be able to complete design -- y = mx + b type circuit * Temperature sensor processing using diode -- y = mx + b type circuit * Determine order for Butterworth and Chebyshev filter * Complete the design of a Sallen-Key circuit Review
for
Final Exam -- All of above topics for Test 1 and Test 2 plus the
following:* Oscillators * Analyze circuit similar to LM555 for frequency of oscillation * RC state-machine oscillator (similar to LM555) analysis and design, duty cycle analysis and design * Analysis of absolute value circuit, similar to lab -- given a DC input voltage, determine voltages at various nodes * Complete design of log converter -- very similar to lab * Comparators and Schmitt trigger circuits, analysis and design (Note: the HW answers in the notes for Schmitt Triggers are generally wrong -- don't know what happened -- use the schmitt_trigger.xlsx spreadsheet in the non-linear section below to compute correct answers) I will put the fundamental equations on the white board -- the starting point for the derivations -- you will have to derive what you need from those -- so definitely practice derivations. * Zener diode regulator design from given starting point (no iteration) * Voltage regulation, line regulation calculations * Heat dissipation of voltage regulator * Thermal calculations * A/D and D/A calculations New information will be posted in this space as it is available -- check back often. |

IntroductionThe following files are the lecture notes for the course I teach at the University of Alabama, Birmingham. Anyone who finds this site is welcome to use the files. Free text book: This is an
excellent book written at
Texas Instruments.Op-Amps for Everyone The primary text for EE431/EE531 consists of
articles
written by the instructor and data sheets and application notes
from a variety of manufacture web sites as posted below.
You should definitely print out the instructor's articles as
those are very applicable to tests. You may want to print
some of the manufacture's information but it is not necessary
to print all of it as that would be a huge number of pages and
you would be lost in the wealth of information. Definitely read
all of them. Note that the data and application notes include
material that is beyond the scope of the class - do not worry
about sections that are not applicable. After you have
gained more experience those advanced sections will begin to make
sense.Be sure to check out the following interview on National Public Radio with Jim Williams who is an analog electronics engineer and works for Linear Technologies Corporation in Milpitas, CA -- the southeastern end of what is known as Silicon Valley. The audio is about 5 minutes and there are five interesting pictures of Jim's office and home. Jim is one of the best known analog designers in the world and the interview is very interesting. Jim has written many articles concerning electronics engineering. A few of the application notes below were written by him. NPR
: One Man's Junk Is
Another's MarvelThe following companies have excellent web sites with a lot of information. Their application notes are the basis for many textbooks you could pay a lot of money for. You can download these for free. You need to check these sites anytime you need to know anything. Texas
Instruments |

Title
PageTitle
Page
for Notes This is a
title page that
goes with the entire note set. |

Operational
AmplifiersThe following notes are the primary course material
for
op-amps.Op-amp Introduction
This
article begins with a brief history and then describes the pins
and operation of an op-amp.Op-amp
Analysis
This article
describes how to perform classical and ideal analysis of op-amp
circuits.Op-amp DC
Error Analysis
This
article describes how to analyze an op-amp circuit for the effect
of DC errors such as offset voltage, bias current, and offset
bias current.op_amp_calculator.xlsx This
is
a spreadsheet that analyses a basic op-amp circuit for gain, DC
errors such as offset voltage, bias current, and offset bias
current, AC bandwidth, and noise.Op-amp
Specifications This
article
describes the most common specifications of an op-amp on the data
sheet.Op-amp Single
Supply Circuits
This
article describes how to analyze op-amp circuits that operate on
a single power supply voltage.Instrumentation
Amplifier
This
is a brief summary hand calculation of the characteristic of an
instrumentation amplifier. Refer to the manufacturer's
notes below for more information.Op-amp Floating
Sources
This note illustrates a common problem in instrumentation and the
solution.Op-amp
Frequency Response
This
article describes the frequency response of an op-amp.op_amp_frequency_response.xls
This
spreadsheet simulates up to a third order roll-off in frequency
response of an op-amp. Both the open-loop and close-loop
responses are shown. It is easy to see the bandwidth limitations
at high gain or gain peaking or even instability at low gain.Op-amp
Homework Problems 1
These are a couple of good homework problems to
work. Be sure you understand these -- something similar
could be on the tests.Op-amp
Homework Problems 2
This is a set of
homework problems to solve concerning various error terms.
Here is some supplemental material -- actually it
is a
lot! You should read as much of it as you can.http://www.waltjung.org
This is an
excellent web site for students to check out -- be sure to go the
Library page and read the material under ADI Books and Articles
-- that is better than any text book on op-amps. There are
numerous easy to read articles concerning applications of op-amps
in the library section. An excellent book to have is IC
Op-amp Cookbook by Walter Jung. It is a paperback that has
been in print for over 30 years. Any edition is excellent for
students. The third edition of this book is still in print
although Mr. Jung advises me that the print quality is poor with
the newer printings. He recommends that older third
editions be purchased instead. My thought is that ebay is a
good source.Information: Even though
much of the
material in the following is beyond what you can comprehend now
it is excellent to read and understand what you can. This
is where your instructor learned op-amps by the same process.The Monlithic Operational Amplifier: A Tutorial Study Has some good basic information although much of it is advanced -- learn what you can. Monolithic Op-Amp -- the Universal Linear Component -- written by Robert Widlar (the correct pronunciation of his last name is "WIDE-lahr") who is considered to be the greatest op-amp designer that ever lived. Bob Widlar with artwork of LM10 circa 1977 Op-amp
Practical Applications
This
article provides some general and practical information on op-amp
circuits.Op-amp
General Considerations
This
article provides some general considerations on how to choose an
op-amp for a particular application.Op-amp
Demo Circuit
This article describes
a simple op-amp circuit built with discrete components. The
purpose of the article is to illustrate the basic internal
building blocks.Data Sheets:
Here are some
common data
sheets you should be familiar with.LM741 data sheet This is an old standard op-amp that is good for students to use. LM324 data sheet This is a quad op-amp that can work on low voltage or even single power supplies. LM118 data sheet This is an old wide bandwidth op-amp. AD549 data sheet This is a precision op-amp with input bias currents in the fempto-ampere region. LT1366 data sheet This is a dual rail-rail op-amp both input and output. Example Circuits:
-- Many examples
to give you
ideas of what can be done with op-amps.Op-Amp Circuit Collection A Collection of Op-Amp Applications An IC User's Guide to Grounding and Decoupling |

Electronic
NoiseThe following is the text material for this part of
the course.See op_amp_calculator.xlsx
for noise calculations. Thermal Voltage
Noise
This is a much expanded version of and
replaces noise_notes.pdf except for the HW problems.
New problem sets will be developed and noise_notes will
ultimately go away as it won't be needed anymore. Noise
Notes
This note is a
brief summary of noise information and includes some homework
problems. Shot
Noise
This
note discusses the concept of shot noise.Noise
Analysis of Op-amp Circuits
This note discusses how to calculate noise in op-amp
circuits.Noise
Homework
These are
homework problems that are very similar to what you might see on
a test. EE431 Lab 2:
Random Noise -- This lab
is mostly performed with the noise_experiment.xlsx
spreadsheet.The following is supplemental material that you
should
read.Amplifier Noise
Metrics
This is a noise related note that may be useful in a
communication course.Optimum Rs for
Minimum Noise
This
is a noise related note concerning achieving minimum noise that
may be useful in a communication course.Noise Analysis in Operational Amplifier Circuits The following table shows the ratio of noise bandwidth to electrical bandwidth (-3 dB) of a system. The noise bandwidth is always wider than the electrical bandwidth but approaches the electrical bandwidth as the filter order becomes high. First order -- 1.57 Second order -- 1.22 Third order -- 1.15 Fourth order -- 1.13 Fifth order -- 1.11 Thus, a first order low-pass filter with an electrical bandwidth of 1 kHz would have a noise bandwidth of 1.57 kHz. |

Transducers
Thermocouples -- old notes with HW These are the old hand thermocouple notes but include some homework with answers.
Practical
Thermocouple Temperature Measurements This is a continuing
application about thermocouples. AD594, AD595 data sheet
This is a monolithic thermocouple processor including ambient
temperature compensation. AD620 data sheet
This is a low-cost instrumentation amplifier Electrical Resistivity of
Copper, Gold, Palladium and Silver |

Frequency
FiltersThe following is the text material for this part of
the
course.Frequency
Filters This note is
an introduction and general description of frequency filters.Butterworth Math This
note
has
the derivation of Butterworth mathematics.Chebyshev
Math
This note
has a
summary of Chebyshev mathematics.Filter
Tables
This note has
filter design tables for a variety of low-pass filters.Sallen
Key Low-Pass Filter This
note has the derivation of analysis and design of Sallen-Key
low-pass filters.Biquad
Filter
This is the derivation of the general bi-quad filter circuit that can
simultaneously do low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, and band-reject
filters with easy control of frequency and Q.Choosing
RC Values for Active Filters
This is an article about how to determine practical resistor and
capacitor values for RC active filters.Filter Homework These
are a few homework problems you should work.lpf_design.xls This spreadsheet computes the pole locations for up to a 16th order Butterworth or Chebyshev low-pass filter sallen_key_design.xlsx This spreadsheet computes the resistor and capacitor values for a second-order low-pass Sallen-Key filter section. frs.xls This spreadsheet plots the frequency response of an s-domain system of up to 7th order. time_domain.xlsx This spreadsheet enables students to study time domain effects in filters of up to 7th order. EE431 Lab 4:
Low-pass FiltersThe following is supplemental material
that you
should read.Hall
Network: This is an interesting passive RC notch filter
that is tunable via a single potentiometer. See the following link (and
search for Hall Network) for
an article (Rediscover
the Truly Tunable Hall Network) I wrote
concerning the Hall Network that was published Jan.
31, 2012 in the online version of Electronic Design (http://www.electronicdesign.com).
The online publication is horrible. My original
submission, Design
and Applications of the Hall Network, is much easier to read.Using the Analog Devices Active Filter Design Tool The text and plots for this note are better than any text book you can buy. |

Oscillator
CircuitsIntroduction to Oscillators This is a brief introduction to oscillators in general. Sine Wave Oscillators This discusses various forms of sine wave oscillators. State Machine Oscillators This discusses various state machine driven oscillators using comparators. Variable Duty Cycle Oscillator This short note discusses a practical circuit for students. Oscillator Homework Here are some homework problems for oscillators. EE431 Lab 5:
Oscillator Circuits In this lab
the student
re-creates Bill Hewlett's famous lamp stabilized oscillator
that became the first product of the Hewlett-Packard Company. The
second part of the lab concerns designing rectangular wave
oscillators using the LM555 Timer.The following is
supplemental material that you
should
read.LM555 Square Wave Oscillator
with
Variable Duty Cycle This is a modification of the
standard LM555 oscillator to produce a near square wave.
The duty cycle is varied by connecting the RC charge/discharge
waveform to a comparator with an adjustable threshold.Hewlett-Packard
Journal Nov. 1949 This is part 1 of a discussion of the
various Wein Bridge
oscillators. These were built using vacuum tubes but you
should be able to easily follow the discussion.Articles from
the HP
JournalHewlett-Packard Journal Dec. 1949 This is part 2 of a discussion of the various Wein Bridge oscillators. Hewlett-Packard Journal Jan. 1962 (HP204B) This issue discusses the first solid state version of the Wein Bridge oscillator. Hewlett-Packard Journal Nov. 1965 (HP3300A) This issue discusses a state machine driven oscillator to generate triangle and square waves and illustrates a piecewise linear transfer function to convert triangle waves into sine waves. Dating Vintage Hewlett-Packard Oscillators This is an article that has some interesting history concerning early HP Wein Bridge oscillators. |

Non-linear
CircuitsThe following is the text material for this part of
the
course.Comparators The
comparator has many similarities to an op-amp but has a digital output
instead. Now includes Schmitt Trigger.Schmitt-Trigger
Homework
These are good problems to work with answers.comparator_simulation.xlsx
This is a simulation of
comparator operation and also includes the two-comparator Schmitt
Trigger.schmitt_trigger.xlsx This is a
simulation of
the single
comparator Schmitt Trigger and includes an analysis calculator and
design
calculator.PRecision
Diode Rectifiers A
precision
rectifier can be built by placing a diode in the feedback path of
an op-amp. The forward voltage of the diode is divided by
the open-loop gain of the op-amp to create an essentially zero
forward voltage rectifier.General
non-linear Feedback
This brief note illustrates how non-linear feedback is used to
create new non-linear funtionsLogarithmic
Circuits This
is an
example of non-linear feedback using the exponential forward
current in a PN junction to make a wide range logarithmic
circuit.Analog
Computational Elements
This is a general note about the use of some special integrated
circuits to implement some complex non-linear circuits.EE431 Lab 6:
Non-linear CircuitsThe following is supplemental material that you
should
read.
This is an excellent general purpose comparator for use with dual power
supplies.LM311 Data Sheet LM339 Data Sheet
This is a popular quad comparator.Piecewise
Linear Circuit Notes
These notes shows how a non-linear transfer function can be
approximated by piecewise linear sections using diodes.Piecewise
Linear Circuits
This
is a more detailed text and illustrates a design application
using piecewise linear circuits to implement a simple square-root
circuit.Log Converters Theory and Applications of Log Amplifiers |

Voltage
RegulatorsVoltage Regulators This
is an
introduction to voltage regulators shunt and series.Voltage_Regulators
Using Zener Diodes This
note describes shunt voltage regulators using
Zener diodes and includes homework problems with answers.Voltage
Regulators -- Series This
note describes series voltage regulators and includes
homework problems with answers.zener_regulator.xls
This is a
spreadsheet to assist in the design (and understanding) of Zener
shunt regulators.EE431 Lab 7:
Voltage Regulators This
lab provides
experience with Zener shunt regulators and series
regulators. |

Thermal
Analysis and
DesignThermal
Calculation Introduction
This
note is on thermal analysis and design.Thermal
Homework
These are some good thermal problems (with answers) to work -- do
not hand in.Thermal and Voltage Regulator Problems These are some more practice problems (with answers) for the test. Do not hand in. The following is supplemental material that you
should
read.Aavid-Thermalloy
web
site This is one of the best known
companies
for small heat sinks and they have a lot of information on this
site.How
to Select a Heat
Sink This is a
good article on the selection of heat sinks. |

Analog to
Digital and Digital to
Analog ConvertersThe following is the text material for this part of
the
course.AD
Converters
This note
describes basic A/D and D/A converters and includes homework
problems with answers.EE431 Lab 8:
Analog to Digital Conversion (no longer assigned)
(use with
Analog to Digital Simulation Spreadsheet below). This is no
longer assigned as witht he shortened schedule there is no time to do
it. However, students are encouraged to use this as an aid to
learning.a2dsim.xls
This spreadsheet
implements a simulation of an analog-to-digital converter and
conversion back to analog.
The ABCs of ADCs This is an excellent article about analog to digital converters. |