revised Dec. 17, 2016

This is a list of scores in descending numerical order.
Absolutely no names, codes, or any identifiers will ever be used
that could link a score to a particular student.

Do not worry if you do not get the exact numbers I have below as
I used quite a bit of rounding in computing some answers. You
were not graded to the exact digits. Also, if you see
"ok" written on your test it means that you worked the
problem basically right even though your answers do not agree
with mine - you made a small error at the start of the problem
that skewed the results. Even though I am very
"mean-spirited" and could have marked it all wrong, I
was so glad to see that some people could actually work a problem
right per the method I teach that the nicer side of me said to
give you full credit or at most take off only a very small
amount.

__Reminder --
you are not supposed
to remove any sheets from the staple -- there are clear
instructions on the test to that effect__.

I have observed considerable confusion in calculating with u, m, k, and M. A number of students can't seem to operate a calculator -- have right numbers but totally wrong results. I have said it before and I will say it again -- If you are using the graphic algebraic mode of your calculator then YOU ARE DOING IT WRONG -- and very slowly too which hurts you on a test. Learn how to use a calculator in standard mode. RPN on an HP35S is by far the most efficient and least error prone method. Don't be a victim of technology. Students years ago only had plain calculators and operated their calculators more accurately and faster on tests.

100, 98, 97, 96, 95, 94, 93, 90

84 79, 75, 72, 72, 71 68, 67, 66, 65, 64, 63, 62, 60 59, 59, 58, 56, 52, 50, 45, 45, 43, 40, 40, 37, 37, 36, 34, 29, 29, 27There
were quite a number of very good test papers. I am pleased.
Basically, if you scored above the mid 70s then you are doing
fine. If you scored less than the mid 50s then you are in danger
of failing the course. If you are disappointed in your score then
try to understand why -- most low grade issues are caused by inadequate
study and inability to use the calculator efficiently or even
accurately. Another major factor is not understanding the
fundamentals you should have learned in the past. This is an
applied course and you must utilize a lot of material (Ohm's law,
circuit laws, etc.) you should have learned in previous courses.
Weakness in those will lead to very low test scores -- but you
should have anticipated that from the homework and studied more.

Engineers calculate. If you can't calculate then you can't be
an engineer. It is clear that some students do not know how to use their
calculator. I think students waste a lot of time entering
calculations in graphic algebraic mode (the most inefficient way
to calculate) and then make entry errors. The best
calculator to use is an HP35S in RPN (not algebraic) mode.
That is by far the most efficient way to calculate -- but you
have to develop a proficiency -- it is not hard and a little
investment in time is well worth it. I saw a number of errors
caused by misusing the calculator. If your calculator screen
shows the problem you are solving in graphic form then there is a high
probability that you will get the wrong answer -- believe it or not --
I have seen that too many times over the years -- that graphic screen
is a sales gimmick to bamboozle you into thinking that the calculator
is "easy" to use . It is not that the calculator is incorrect
-- it is that you do not notice an error you made in entering so some
mathematical group is wrong. I have said many times that the
best calculators are the old-fashion type without graphics.
Graphic entry is much slower and wastes your valuable test
time. An HP35S in RPN mode is one of the few modern
calculators that works the old-fashion way. Students adept at
that can perform calculations faster and with fewer errors and score higher on tests.

Some general comments that apply to all classes:

My theory as to what goes wrong is that many students are very ill prepared to think algebraically and are also weak in application of Ohm's and Watt's fundamental laws. A second issue is that I think students are overly focused on solving homework problems without having first studied the notes I provide and repeated the derivations. Blind application of the equations on the equation sheet will not work -- you have to know what you are doing.

I am afraid that a major problem with many students is that they grew up in an era of "modern" teaching methods -- which are the absolute worst ever devised -- i.e. you are a victim of bureaucracy. That is a handicap for everyone. Interestingly, older students who were not exposed to "modern" methods generally perform much better in my class. I teach the old-fashion way because that is a proven success. I am very much in disagreement with how math is taught and if it were up to me I would gather up the "modern" methods in a pile and burn them and force instructors to return to the old ways.

My biggest suggestion would be to carefully study the notes -- re-read and seek full understanding. The material is not complicated. Then work problems and don't be afraid to apply algebra.

What is the excuse of those that scored in the 90s? They showed that it can be done -- that the test is not crafted in any way for the class to score low.

Answers to Test 1 This is a pdf of the Excel spreadsheet I used to compute the answers. Many partial results are also shown.100, 100, 100, 100, 100, 99, 98, 98, 97, 97, 96, 96, 96, 96, 92, 92, 92, 91, 90

89, 88, 88, 86, 86, 86, 84, 84, 84, 82, 82, 82, 82, 80

78, 76, 72, 70

68

58, 52, 42, 12

Answers to Test 2 This is a pdf of the Excel spreadsheet I used to compute the answers. Many partial results are also shown.**Answers: Note -- the DSS students had a different test**

Comments: There were many calculation errors:

1.2K + 50 is not equal to 51.2 ohms for example.

4m * 750 is not equal to 3000.

sqrt(4 mA * 6 mA) is not equal to 4.9 amperes.

Many errors were likely the result of very sloppy work.

Generally, the papers with organized neat work were also the highest scoring.

There is too much blind use symbology such as RE1, etc. -- you must know the circuit context.

If the final has the resistors labeled R10, R11, R12, etc. will you be able to solve the problem?

__Final Exam 2016
scores__:

The scores on the final exam and distribution of grades in the
class will be posted approximately about the time or a little
after students can directly obtain their grade from the
registrar's office -- the only official source. This is because from
past experience,
students worry too much about their grade and are in too much
suspense until they receive their official grade - as if there is
anything that worry could do about it. Therefore, I find that it
is better for students not to know the scores and grade
distribution until after they have received their official grade.
Please do not email or call me for your grade - I can not give it
out. You will find out soon enough through the normal channel.
You should have a good idea anyway.

Here are the scores on the final exam for
Fall 2016.

99, 98, 97, 96, 96, 94, 93, 93, 93, 91, 91, 90, 90, 90

89, 86, 86, 86, 84, 82, 80

79, 79, 76, 76

69, 69, 68, 68, 68, 68, 68, 67, 65, 64, 61

59, 58, 55, 35

__Overall
Grades for Fall
2016__:

10 BBBBBBBBBB

9 CCCCCCCCC

5 DDDDD

1 F

If your score on the final was higher than your test average
then your final was used for all tests -- this helped
many students as most students scored higher on the final than their
test average.

General notes for all classes

There is a high correlation between doing neat and organized work and a high test grade.

There is also a high correlation between doing sloppy and disorganized work and a low test grade.

Many errors were caused by sloppy work.

Many calculator errors. If you would invest in a real
calculator rather than a cheap toy and learn to use it your scores
could have been a letter grade higher in many cases.

Tests are getting harder and harder to grade -- all I see is a big mess. Some papers are excellent though.

Failure to understand numbers: 1.2K + 50 is not equal to 51.2. 4m*750 is not equal to 3000.

Failure to know what nano and pico are. Given 3.2 uF you enter 3.2 farads on your calculator.

Never round intermediate calculations to standard values or round input resistance to standard values -- that is stupid.

Confusion between design and analysis. Design equations will
not work for analysis and analysis equations will not work for design.

This class had considerable confusion with common-emitter with common-collector.

There seems to be a bad concept of trying to learn a blind/dumb procedure to obtain an answer without any understanding of the process. This approach generally fails on my tests because I intentionally do things slightly different to make you think. If you understand what you are doing then that causes no issue. If you are following a blind/dumb procedure then you become stuck. I am concerned that the blind/dumb procedure concept comes from modern educational methods which are proven failures -- contrary to the claims of those who make a lot of money hocking these methods. Old methods requiring thought process have stood the test of time. Modern educational methods, contrary to what they purport, are not about learning -- they are about money -- create a new method, get a government mandate to require following it, pay exorbitant fees to the method providers for materials and training -- then later wonder why students are performing worse. Solution, repeat the "mistake" with yet another new method -- ad nausium -- maximize profits to materials and training providers while achieving pitiful results for students -- that is what government educational bureaucracy is all about. It works well -- we have maximum expense and maximum mediocrity.

[This note is particularly from a previous year but its concept always seems to apply] One strange thing -- most students scored well on Lab 6 (Frequency response) yet a number of students had not a clue on the final exam -- I realize that in some cases that time was the factor -- but not all. I have seen this phenomenon on a variety of course topics and particularly in EE431. It is a known issue that copying old labs is rampant -- that is why the lab scores do not count for very much -- they are already falsely skewed to be too high -- except that some students do trulyIn general the class went well. There were several students who I know really put forth effort to learn and I am always glad to see that -- that is what school is about -- that is why I teach. Unfortunately, effort does not always translate into an 'A' -- but that is OK. I was mostly a 'B' student and that has never held me back in my work. I was one of those who perfected knowledge and ability to work related problems after the course. In the grand scheme of things your GPA, unless it is particularly bad, has little effect on your career. A high GPA might get you into some doors of life earlier but those doors are never closed.

**An accumulation of comments to classes
in general over the years, not necessarily to this class**

Comments: One observation I have is that students seem to be very weak
in Algebra -- this has gotten significantly worse in recent years.
Also, it appears that students prefer to blindingly plug numbers into
some magic equation without knowing or any understanding -- this may be
related to the first observation. In a number of cases for the EE351
final the equation you needed was on the provided sheet but not
necessarily directly solved for a particular variable -- something that
would have been a trivial Algebra problem that you should have
practiced in studying. Engineering is about doing calculations -- and
that is another point -- students seem to be very inefficient doing
calculations with modern calculators -- those would slow me down too. I
highly recommend an HP-35S calculator and becoming proficient in RPN --
that radically reduces the time required to do calculations. That is
how I and many others got through school and that is what I use today.
For EE431 I am going to emphasis doing the Algebra and tests may
consist more of symbolic solutions. Numerous times during the course I
told you that it was very important for you do all of the derivations I
demonstrated on your own. It is obvious that few did but perhaps a
serious weakness in Algebra was more of a factor than I have ever
realized. I read reports on how pathetically weak American students are
in comparison to numerous other countries -- looks like I am seeing it.
I am trying to ponder what I can do about it -- I am afraid not much --
the damage was done in the past. My EE351 students of the past could
readily work Algebra. I expect that because without Algebra it is
impossible to do engineering. I use Algebra all the time in my work. On
a positive note there were students who did well with the Algebra and I
noticed a few aspiring Algebra workers -- so there is hope.

Some students might have a misconception about final grades. All I can
do is report the grade you earned. I am not allowed to give, assign,
influence, etc. your grade in any way other than scaling adjustments
that apply equally to all. There are always cases where I know that a
student is making a good effort and perhaps "deserves" an 'A' but their
average is a 'B'. I have to report the 'B' no matter how favorably
impressed I am with the student. There are other cases where a student
barely passes with a 'D' and I know that they really do not deserve to
pass. In those cases I have to report the 'D' my opinion
notwithstanding.

No matter how grades are calculated there will always be those who are
in the upper portion of one letter grade and with one more scaling
point added to everyone then they would have a higher letter grade. But
then that creates a new problem -- now there is someone new just below
the next grade threshold -- another scaling point and they would have a
higher letter grade. But it does not end here -- depending on the
distribution of scores then his process could repeat and repeat until
grades become meaningless. The only sane way to deal with this is to
rigidly follow the standard thresholds after scaling points are added.
Everyone already has the benefit of up to one point as any fractions of
a point are rounded up -- so a 79.01 raw score would automatically
round up to a B, etc. I know everyone wants an 'A' or at least
something higher than a 'D' -- although a 'D' is certainly preferable
to an 'F'. I understand if you did not make the letter grade you were
seeking but that is just life -- many times I did not make the grade I
wanted either -- but that has never held me back in life -- I am a
definite success story in spite of being a 'B' student (with some 'A's,
'C's, and even a few 'D's). The point here is -- don't feel bad -- you
are another course closer to graduation.

There are a number of reasons I do long tests that some may not
complete. Students worry about that unnecessarily -- keep in mind that
I always have the option to scale final grades up as appropriate. The
final grades below are typical for EE351 classes and there is no way
you can look at those grades and conclude that the system was rigged
against you. It all comes out in the end. That is how life works. One
key to life is perseverance. Focus on the big picture and do not allow
little details to disturb you.